Dog and Cat overpopulation is a problem in our area! The overcrowding of animals in the community leads to a strain on infrastructure and unnecessary euthanasia. In response, ORHS offers two programs to spay/neuter animals at little to no cost.
Want to start your day in the best way ever? How about taking a walk with shelter dogs and like-minded animal lovers? We meet at ORHS every morning at 8:30 for a 45-minute stroll… it’s a great way for the dogs to get exercise, socialization and lots of pets and love! Contact ORHS for more info!
Did you know January is National Walk Your Dog Month? Just like humans, in order to remain happy and healthy, dogs need regular exercise. Don’t have a dog - join the daily volunteer walking group at ORHS. We take the shelter dogs on a brisk walk every day at 8:30 am – rain or shine! What a fun way to meet people and get in your dog and puppy fix…and oh, yes – get some exercise, too!
Photo by The Creative Exchange on Unsplash
By Dr. Lonnie King
The month of April has been designated as “Heartworm Awareness Month”. This designation is a good reminder for you to make sure that you understand the serious threat of heartworms and ensure that you are taking the right steps to prevent this disease in your pets.
Heartworm Disease affects thousands of dogs and cats across Georgia every year. All 50 states and many countries around the world experience heartworm disease in pets and wildlife. In the U.S. alone, there are an estimated 1.1 million active cases and Southeastern United States is a hotspot for cases. Georgia ranks #8 in the U.S. for total cases and the disease is becoming more prevalent.
A Complex Disease
Heartworm (HW) is a preventable but very serious disease that can be fatal. It can infect dogs, cats, ferrets, and a variety of wildlife. Adult HW (scientific name, Dirofilaria immitis) look like strands of cooked spaghetti and can reach lengths of 12-14 inches. These worms grow and lodge in the heart and lungs of infected animals and can cause restricted blood flow, damaged blood vessels and produce high levels of inflammation. The adult worms release microscopic offspring into the animal’s blood stream that are termed microfilaria. The microfilaria, in turn, will enter, survive and further mature in the bodies of mosquitoes when they bite an infected animal and then continue to be transmitted when the mosquito resumes biting other animals. The microfilaria take about 6 months to grow into adult worms which enter the heart and lungs. Dogs, cats, and other animals cannot transmit the disease directly, only mosquitoes are responsible for transmission.
Once a pet is infected with microfilaria, it takes about six months for them to become adults and lodge in the heart and lungs. Adult HW can live in pets for years continuing to produce microfilaria during this entire time and making them a risk and continuous source of infection. Infected dogs with advanced disease often demonstrate symptoms that include a mild cough, fatigue, reluctance to exercise, difficulty breathing, decreased appetite and loss of weight.
HW can never be eliminated because wildlife, including foxes, coyotes, raccoons, and opossums are susceptible, have the same life cycle as found in pets, and serve as sources of HW for other wildlife and domestic pets through mosquito bites. Georgia has a great environment for the maintenance and spread of HW because of our warm weather, water sources, mosquitoes, and lots of wildlife. Thus, the disease is a constant threat, and the natural cycle of infection occurs year around in our state.
HW Disease in Cats
Although dogs and cats both can contract HW, the disease in cats is very different from the disease in dogs. Cats are poor hosts for HW, and the disease often will not progress, so adult worms do not develop. Even if they do, the number of adult HW found in cats is much less that found in dogs. The immune system of cats aggressively attacks microfilaria thus preventing them from maturing into adult worms. However, through this process, a huge amount of inflammation is created that can cause serious damage to lung tissue. There are usually many fewer cases of HW in cats relative to our dogs; however, the disease in cats can be very severe and even fatal. Cats with advanced disease will often cough, wheeze and vomit. About 25 percent of cases in cats are found in indoor cats. Infected mosquitoes do get inside our homes and unknowingly put these pets at risk.
Testing and Treatment
The earlier HW disease is detected, the better the chances that your pet will recover. In dogs, diagnostic tests are accurate and relatively simple. Using a blood sample, proteins (antigens) from adult worms can be detected and the microfilaria may also be found by examining the pet’s blood sample. Your local veterinarian can usually do these tests as part of a routine office visit. HW infection in cats is much more difficult to diagnose since they commonly do not have circulating microfilaria in their blood and antigen and antibody tests are not very reliable. Sometimes, X-rays or ultrasound will be used in both cats and dogs to help diagnose HW.
Treatments are available and although they have a relatively high degree of success if used before the disease becomes too advanced, the treatments can be risky, and complications may occur. The goal of the treatment in dogs is to kill both the adult worms and the microfilaria as safely as possible. This is done through a series of injections over a period of time. It is important to consider that when treatment is taking place, HW in the heart and lungs are dying and slowly being dissolved; thus, complete rest and often hospitalization is necessary. The treatment often takes several months to complete. Glucocorticoids and antibiotics are often included as part of the total treatment. Recently, researchers have found that the adult HW are themselves infected with a bacterium (called Wolbachia) that may complicate both the course of the disease and the treatment.
Unfortunately, there are no approved treatments for cats and the treatments used for dogs, often an arsenic-containing drug, are toxic and dangerous for cats. You will need to work with your local veterinarian to plan the best treatment strategy which will often focus on reducing their very high levels of inflammation. On rare occasions, HW can be removed surgically but this is a high-risk procedure reserved for only the most severe cases.
Managing Heartworms in Animal Shelters and Humane Societies
An estimated 30 percent of pets in the U.S. are acquired from animal shelters and this number is growing. While this is wonderful trend, animal shelters do have unique challenges in dealing with HW disease. Dogs and cats are likely to be at higher risk of HW because stray and surrendered animals have often not received veterinary care nor have they been on HW preventive medications. It is costly and time consuming for shelters to diagnose and treat HW cases. However, this should not discourage you from obtaining a “forever pet” from them. Our own Oconee Regional Humane Society (ORHS) works with local veterinary practitioners to test every dog under their care and if any are found infected, they work together to treat these dogs either prior to adoption or they will help pay for the treatment after adoption. The cost of treatment can be expensive and the ORHS conducts a “Heart-to-Heart” campaign each year to obtain donations that will exclusively be used to help pay for treating HW cases. Please watch for this campaign and hopefully support the cause generously.
PREVENTION, PREVENTION, PREVENTION!
There is good news – HW disease is almost 100 percent preventable in both dogs and cats. There are numerous options available that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration that can be used. The best choice for your pet will be based on the pet’s lifestyle and risk factors. Remember that preventives do not kill adult worms therefore your pet needs to be tested and be negative before you begin preventive treatments. Preventives may be in the form of pills, topical medications, or injections. Chewable tablets given monthly are commonly used for both dogs and cats. By preventing HW in your pet, you not only protect them, but also help break the infection cycle and protect other pets.
All the preventive medications work by eliminating the microfilaria stage of the HW parasite circulating in the blood. Once you are certain that your pet is HW negative, preventive medications can then be started. Because puppies and kittens are also susceptible to HW infection, they should be started on preventives as early as 8-10 weeks of age. However, work with your local veterinarian because not all medications are cleared for use at early ages. Our Georgia pets are constantly exposed to infected mosquitoes twelve months of the year and for the lifetime of the pet. It has been estimated that the cost of HW treatment is fifteen times greater than the annual cost of preventive medications.
There is further good news; there can be additional benefits from today’s medications. Some HW preventive treatments used today are also effective in preventing intestinal worms such as hookworms, roundworms, whipworms, and tapeworms. Some even will concurrently prevent flea, tick, and ear mite infestations. It is important to work with your local veterinarian to make certain that your pet tests negative for HW and you choose the best option to prevent the disease.
There is no vaccine for HW but the many effective preventives, if used properly, compensate for this deficiency. A final piece of good news is that HW do not have the ability to live in people and although we are bitten by infected mosquitoes like our pets, the parasite will not survive nor cause human disease.
As we acknowledge “Heartworm Awareness Month” this April, please remember that Georgia is major hot spot for HW disease and our dogs, cats and ferrets are at high risk over their entire lifetimes. However, as responsible, and caring pet owners, we have the tools to prevent this serious and often fatal infection. Our fury family members are counting on you to protect them!
Help ORHS Prevent Heartworm
April is Heartworm Prevention Month and the start of the annual ORHS Heart -to-Heart campaign. Over the last year, we have rescued 15 HW positive animals. Heartworm treatment can cost over $500 per animal. You can help us ensure that these animals go to their adoptive homes ready for long and healthy lives. Can you please help us?
February 22 is National Walk the Dog Day! What better way to combine two of the most happy-making things we have in life: dogs and exercise. In fact, a group of ORHS volunteers meets every morning at the shelter at 8:30 am to walk the dogs that are in our care! Besides giving the dogs exercise and socialization, we teach leash etiquette and basic commands, making the dogs even more adoptable! Want to join this group of happy dog lovers? Contact us for more information.
What You Should Know...
We are all on high alert as we follow the spread of the COVID-19 (new coronavirus) pandemic and its unprecedented impact on our lives. What about our pets? Are they susceptible? Can they transmit the infection? What should I do with my pet if I contract the virus? Where did this virus come from? While we are still trying to understand the COVID-19 pandemic, there is information emerging that is helpful in answering these questions.
Where Did It Come From?
Coronaviruses are a family of related viruses that can cause diseases in mammals and birds. The name is derived from the Latin “Corona” meaning “crown” which refers to the microscopic appearance of the virus – a ball with protein spikes that resemble a crown. In humans, past coronavirus infections have caused respiratory tract infections that were mild such as the common cold or serious, even fatal infections such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and recently COVID-19. The name COVID-19 is an abbreviation from Corona Virus Disease and 2019, the year the disease was discovered. Both SARS and MERS have been responsible for epidemics over the past two decades and are related to COVID-19. Symptoms of coronavirus infections vary with species that are infected. Pigs and cattle have gastro-intestinal diseases and birds and cats have respiratory diseases. However, there is no transmission to people in the U.S. from our domestic or food producing animals.
There is strong scientific evidence that the recent group of serious human coronavirus infections, SARS, MERS and COVID-19, have all originated from bats. COVID-19 has a 96% genetic match with a coronavirus recently found in a bat in China. Bats likely serve as asymptomatic carriers of these viruses. They have the infections without getting sick, but still can shed and transmit the virus to other animals or people. The bats are considered the maintenance host, that is, the virus remains in them and is the principle source of the disease long term. The recent group of serious human diseases caused by coronaviruses have also been isolated from a group of other animals that were infected from bats and then became carriers themselves, thus further spreading the diseases. These animals are termed intermediate hosts, meaning that they become infected as a species and can then amplify and further spread the virus. For example, the intermediate host for MERS is likely camels. Currently, the pangolin, an animal like a small anteater, is suspected of helping to initially spread COVID-19 after being infected from bats but this theory is still unproven and is being researched further. People can be infected either directly from bats but are usually infected from intermediate host animals. Pandemics occur when the viruses are capable of being transmitted from person to person without the involvement of animals.
Early evidence suggests that COVID-19 originated from bats found in “live-animal” markets in Wuhan, China. It is a common cultural practice in China for people to visit large markets with many live animals that are all mixed closely together. People mix with birds, mammals, reptiles and fish which are sold and often slaughtered onsite so that people get fresh meat for their meals. This practice allows people to come into close contact with a variety of animal species, including bats, that may be carrying coronaviruses or other infections. We know that this same practice was likely the source of the SARS pandemic in 2002-2003. Some bats are hunted and used for food in other cultures including China. Not all these viruses are easily transmitted to people and even if they do infect people, the infections are often limited because the transmission doesn’t easily occur from person to person. COVID-19 has been an exception. It has the unique capability of being readily transmitted from person to person; it is highly contagious and thus has spread rapidly across the globe as a pandemic.
Can Dogs and Cats Get Infected With COVID-19?
The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that there is currently no evidence that household pets can contract or spread COVID-19. The CDC has also confirmed that they have not received any reports that pets or other animals in the U.S. have become sick with COVID-19. In addition, public health officials state that that is no evidence or research to support the idea that human to pet transmission occurs. Dogs and cats can acquire their own type of coronavirus infections from each other and these usually result in mild illnesses. Importantly, these animal infections only circulate within the pet populations and are not transmitted to, nor infect people. Thus. there is very strong evidence, from many sources, that our pets do not contract COVID-19 and are not are sources of the infection.
Are There Diagnostic Tests Available for Pets for COVID-19 and Should I have My Pet Tested?
While there is a diagnostic test that is being developed for COVID-19 for pets, it is not commercially available today. More importantly, there is no reason to test pets since they are not being infected with COVID-19. If your pet develops a respiratory disease, the recommendation is to work with your veterinarian to test for other respiratory infections. However, because COVID-19 is a new disease, more information is always being discovered about the dynamics of the infection. COVID-19 will continue to be monitored in pets but today there is no reason to tests pets and there is no recommendation to do so.
What Should I Do with My Pet If I Contract COVID-19?
The CDC recommends that if you contract COVID-19, you should keep a distance from your pets just like you would do with other people while you are quarantined. While there have been no reports of any pets being infected or sick with COVID-19, it is still recommended that you limit any contacts with your pets until more information is known about the virus. The concern is not that your pet will become infected, but it could possibly carry the virus on its fur or collar for a short time and transmit to another person. While this is feasible, it is certainly not a high risk. Yet out of an abundance of caution, it would be helpful, if possible, to have someone else care for you pet while you are sick. If this is not possible, be sure to wash your hands before and after interacting with your pet. Certainly petting, snuggling, kissing, being licked or sharing food should be avoided.
If I Don’t Have COVID-19, Should I Change How I Interact with My Pet?
If you are not ill with COVID-19, you can interact with your pet as you normally would including walking, playing and feeding. You should still practice good hygiene by washing your hands frequently and ensure that you pet is clean and well groomed. While you will not contract COVID-19 from your pet, there are other diseases and parasites that can be transmitted.
How Should I Prepare for My Pet’s Care in the Event that I Am Infected with COVID-19?
You should develop a contingency plan for your pet just like you should be doing for you and your family. Identify a person, either in your household or a friend, to care for your pet should you contract COVID-19. Make sure that you have an emergency kit prepared with at least 2-3 weeks of food and any needed medications. It is probably a good idea to have an emergency kit available for your pet anyway, in case there are further restrictions on social distancing.
What If My Pet Needs to Go to The Veterinarian?
If you are not ill with COVID-19 or have another communicable disease like the flu, call your veterinarian and follow her/his recommendations to work out a schedule for a visit. While many routine veterinary visits can be rescheduled, work with your veterinarian to check when he/she believes the visit is most appropriate and safe. If your pet has an emergency, call ahead to find out about needed care or recommendations to be seen. If you are sick with COVID-19 or have been recently diagnosed, you must stay at home and minimize contact with other people and avoid unnecessary risks.
by Dr. Lonnie King
We all look forward to the holiday season which abounds with family visits, celebrations, parties, wonderful food and good cheer. However, the holiday season can also carry some serious hazards for our pets. Nothing can spoil holiday cheer like an emergency with a beloved family pet. Here are a few tips to keep your pet safe and healthy this holiday.
Food: (Don’t) Let Them Eat Cake!
Keep people food away from pets. If you want to share holiday treats with your pet, make or buy treats formulated just for them. There are a few foods that are especially hazardous for pets, and include: chocolate, grapes/raisins, alcohol, poultry bones, onions, garlic, raw bread or yeast dough and candy or sweets containing artificial sweeteners. Xylitol is an especially dangerous and toxic sweetener that may be found in some types of gum, candy and baked goods. Turkey meat and turkey skin are off limits because they may cause pancreatitis. This is also true for table scraps including gravy, meat fat, stuffing or pork products. All of these should be kept away from your pet.
There are a few plants that are toxic for pets and may make an appearance during the holidays in our homes. Poinsettias, lilies, amaryllis and mistletoe can be dangerous to cats and dogs. In addition, potpouri mixes, cedar, holly and balsam may also be hazardous for pets. If you plan to use any of these decorative plants or products, be sure that they are kept out of the reach of your pet.
Avoid Choking Hazards
Be certain that your pet does not have access to choking hazards, such as candy wrappers, turkey bones, ribbons, wrapping paper, ornaments, toothpicks, very small toys and tinsel. You should consider not using tinsel to decorate a tree if you have a cat. Turkey carcasses or anything used to wrap or tie the meat such as strings, bags or packaging material present special dangers and they must also be kept away from pets. Not only can these items become choking hazards, but if swallowed, they can lodge in the stomach or intestine and require emergency surgery. Always put the trash away and store it where pets do not have access to it.
Be Cautious of Electrical Cords
Many holiday decorations are a fun way to get into the holiday spirit and many use electricity. If chewed, live electrical cords can cause burns around a pet’s mouth and can result in breathing difficulties and even seizures. To avoid this hazard, unplug lights and decorations when not in use and secure them out of the reach of pets.
Christmas trees can tip over if pets climb on them or try to play with lights or ornaments. If possible, try to secure your tree to a door frame or ceiling. For live trees that require water, additives to the water can offer additional hazards. Thus, do not add sugar, aspirin or other preservatives to the water since pets can be attracted to this water source and ingesting these products may present an additional hazard.
House Parties and Visitors: Reducing Stress and Anxiety
We look forward to holiday guests and hosting parties; however, for some pets, the noise and excitement can be upsetting. They can become nervous and anxious at these gatherings. All pets should have access to a comfortable and quiet place inside if they should want to retreat and get away from the commotion and disruption of their routine. A crate with a favorite toy in a separate room might be a good option and be available as a pet getaway. If you know that your pet is likely to get upset by parties or houseguests, talk with your veterinarian about other preemptive options for this common problem. Guests mean that more people will be coming into and going out of your home, and open doors can be a tempting invitation for a pet to escape and become lost. Therefore, you need to take care during these times to make sure your visitors are aware of your pet and make sure that your pet has proper and current identification information. Of course, microchipping your pet is a good idea regardless of the season.
Other Potential Hazards
Special holiday displays or candles are attractive to pets as well as people. Never leave a pet alone in a room or area with a lit candle. Pinecones, needles and other similar decorations may cause gastrointestinal problems when pets chew on them or swallow them and thus should not be available to your pet. It is a good idea to clear food from your table, counters and serving areas when you are done using them. Again, make certain that your trash is in a place where a pet cannot reach it.
We want our pets to enjoy the holidays with us, and taking these precautions can help ensure this season is fun and joyous. However, planning ahead, just in case, is a good idea. It is helpful to know in advance how to reach a 24/7 emergency veterinary clinic. Talk with your local veterinarian ahead of time and have phone numbers posted and available. There is also an ASPCA Poison Control Hotline that you can access at 1-888-426-4435 should you need immediate consultation about a potential emergency (there may be a fee for this service). Any emergency is stressful and knowing exactly what to do in such instances is extremely helpful.
These tips are offered not to take away the joy from a wonderful time of the year, but, rather, they are reminders about how to keep our pets happy and healthy this holiday season. After all, they are family members, too, and need our care and supervision.
By Dr. Lonnie King – Oconee Regional Humane Society
Our pets bring great enjoyment to our lives and, to many, they have reached a new status as a special family member. We all want our pets to live long, healthy and active lives. However, each day pets suffer health issues that could have been prevented with a little foresight and planning. To remind us that we are responsible for our pet’s health, October has been designated as “National Pet Wellness Month”. In observance of this occasion, here are ten tips to promote pet wellness and proper care.
1. Vaccinations. Dogs and cats are at risk for serious and sometimes life-threatening diseases. Fortunately, many of these diseases can be prevented through the administration of vaccines. It is especially important to begin vaccinations with young puppies and kittens and keep them up to date for their entire lifetime. There are core vaccinations needed yearly and non-core vaccinations that may also be needed based on veterinary recommendations or special circumstances. Remember that a rabies vaccination is legally required by the state of Georgia.
2. Proper Nutrition. Pets need a diet with wholesome ingredients and balanced nutrition for optimal growth and development that is tailored to their age group. It is estimated that more than half of our dogs and cats in America are classified as either over-weight or obese, which can lead to serious health conditions such as diabetes, liver problems and joint disease. Proper nutrition and weight control are like a daily dose of preventive medicine. It is essential to be knowledgeable about your pet’s nutritional needs. There are many high-quality commercial pet foods that meet approved standards and have been formulated based on strong research and development data. While our pets may be family members, they are not people when it comes to food and their special needs. Be cautious of fad and internet diets that promise good health but have no scientific basis or rationale to base their claims.
3. Preventing Ticks, Fleas, Heartworms and Internal Parasites (Worms). Internal and external parasites can pose serious health risks to pets. These pests such as fleas and ticks and internal worms can readily be prevented by the many options available that are easy to use, safe and effective. Some products will work to prevent all these parasites at the same time. However, having numerous options can be complicated for pet owners trying to make the right decisions. Some products are oral, some are topical (putting the product on their coat), others are injectable, and some contain chemicals embedded into collars. The products vary in the length of time that they work or are protective, and their uses may be different depending if they will be given to a cat or dog. For example, heartworms occur in both dogs and cats but differ in prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Preventing internal and external parasites can also help prevent the spread of some serious diseases to owners and family members as well as to pets. Because we live in the south, ticks, fleas, heartworms and internal parasites are year-round threats so preventive treatments must also be used year- round and continued for a pet’s lifetime.
4. Spaying and Neutering. Having your pet spayed or neutered is key to curbing pet over-population and reduces the number of unwanted animals in our communities. Abandoned animals and strays are a common problem across Georgia. These animals, unfortunately, often live shortened, difficult and abused lives. Spaying and neutering can also reduce or prevent certain infections and cancers found in intact cats and dogs.
5. Grooming. Proper grooming keeps pets comfortable and clean. Regular brushing removes dead hair and helps distribute natural oils resulting in healthier coats and reduces mats from forming. Nail trimming helps to avoid injuries and discomfort when nails are over-grown, break or split. Routinely brushing your pet every few days, is part of wellness and gives you an opportunity to detect or notice any growths or abnormalities in their skin or musculature that need early attention.
6. Exercise. Just as in people, a regular exercise routine is essential to a pet’s good health. Exercise can help a pet maintain a healthy weight, and keep their muscles, tendons and bones strong. It may also help to reduce tendencies toward behavior problems. Walking, playing and enjoying the outdoors benefit health by burning calories and increasing an animal’s metabolic rate. Exercising your pet has an added benefit, it promotes better health in the owners as well.
7. Dental Care. Regular dental care is essential to maintaining good pet health. Some pets will tolerate brushing their teeth, which can be quite helpful, but be sure to use toothpaste that has been cleared for dogs or cats. Some human toothpastes can be very toxic and harmful especially in cats. Watch for excessive tartar, abnormal gums (reddened or bloody) or loose teeth. Unchecked dental disease can lead to kidney problems, painful periodontal disease or nutritional problems if the pet cannot chew food properly. As in people, routine teeth cleaning can be a helpful and necessary adjunct to good health.
8. Quality Time. The time that you spend with your pet can be invaluable. Pets are very tuned into us and quite perceptive. Likewise, you can learn more about them – their mood, personality, preferences and, at times, how they are feeling. By knowing a pet’s normal behavior and physical condition, you will be able to detect changes to their health much earlier. Quality time helps to establish a strong human-animal bond and can improve good behavior and training. For most people, having quality time to interact with a pet is one of the most enjoyable and gratifying activities that we share with them.
9. Pet Identification and Record Keeping. We never know when an emergency may arise so preparing ahead of time makes good sense. An important part of preparing is having your pet permanently identified and saving documents that track its health and care. The use of microchips is the best method to identify a pet. Make sure that the identification number is readily available and listed on state and national registers. Keeping records of vaccinations and medical exams, copies of pet tags and adoption papers can serve as helpful reminders for future appointments and may be needed in case of an emergency. It may also be useful to keep an updated photograph of a pet to help identify them.
10. Veterinary Examinations. Pets age more quickly than we do, which means that changes in their health can occur and escalate quickly. Dogs and especially cats can conceal early symptoms of disease problems. Thus professional examinations are important to diagnose and treat health problems early before they become more serious and costly. Establishing a relationship with a veterinarian is a valuable and effective way to ensure your pet’s health and wellness over its lifetime. Establishing routine wellness visits and examinations for your pet solidifies this relationship, optimizes health and enables you to have a competent and experienced professional available to you if there is an emergency or need for special care or treatment.
As pet owners, we share a common goal of ensuring a long, happy and healthy life for our special pets. National Pet Wellness Month reminds us that Benjamin Franklin’s advice, “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is just as applicable to our pet’s health as to our own health and well-being.
September 28, 2019 has been designated as World Rabies Day. Many countries including the United States are observing this day in order to raise awareness about this disease and to bring partners together worldwide to promote the prevention and control of rabies worldwide. The theme of this year’s World Rabies Day is “Vaccinate to Eliminate”. We can do our part by making certain that our dogs, cats and ferrets, are up to date on their rabies vaccinations.
Although rabies is a disease that is 100% preventable, more that 59,000 people die from this deadly disease around the world every year. Most of these cases occur in rural communities in the world’s poorest countries, especially in Asia and Africa, and children have the highest rate of infection and death. Unvaccinated dogs are responsible for transmitting almost 98% of these cases. In the U.S., there are, on average, 400 – 500 cases of rabies in our domestic pets each year but almost 5,000 cases in our wildlife. In April of this year, a rabies positive skunk was found in Greene County, Georgia; thus, it is imperative that you have your pets vaccinated as a Georgia resident.
What is Rabies?
Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous systems. The virus is secreted through the saliva of infected animals and is usually transmitted to people and other animals through bites. Once an animal or person shows signs of rabies, it is almost always fatal. Rabies has been known to mankind for over 4,000 years. The name rabies is derived from the Latin term “rabies” which translated means “to rage”. The rabies virus will usually enter the brain and animals will exhibit changes in behavior including becoming extremely vicious or acting as “in rage” where the Latin term originated.
What Animals Get Rabies?
All mammals are susceptible to rabies. In the U.S., most cases of rabies occur in wildlife – mainly skunks, raccoons, foxes, and bats. Each of these animals serve as reservoirs for the disease and each of these wildlife groups has developed a special variation of the virus. In the U.S., we have been able to eliminate the canine variety of the rabies virus through a very successful vaccination campaign for our dogs. However, our dogs and cats are susceptible to the other strains of the virus and still need to be vaccinated to protect them from these other strains. Humans are also susceptible to all these strains of the rabies virus. Rabies occurs in horses, cattle, pigs, sheep and goats too, but less commonly than found in our pets. Cats that live outdoors, often are not vaccinated, and are especially apt to be exposed to wildlife and rabid animals.
What Are the Signs of Rabies?
Once rabies enters the body, it travels along the nerves to the brain. Animals with rabies may show a variety of signs, including fearfulness, aggression, excessive drooling, difficulty swallowing, staggering, and seizures, Aggressive behavior is common but rabid animals may also demonstrate uncharacteristic affection. Another form of rabies is call paralytic or dumb rabies where an animal is depressed, uncoordinated and becomes completely paralyzed prior to death. Animals manifesting either form of the disease will effectively transmit the disease. Rabid wild animals may lose their natural fear of humans and display unusual behavior such as nocturnal animals wondering and approaching people during the daytime. Rabies can only be confirmed after death, through the microscopic examination of the animal’s brain.
How Great of a Risk is Rabies to Humans?
Rabies remains a major concern worldwide because many countries do not have strong or effective vaccination programs for domestic and stray dogs. Rabies vaccinations, animal control programs and better treatments for humans after they have been bitten, have dramatically reduced the number of cases in the U.S. Today, more than half the human rabies exposures in our country have resulted from rabid bats. Thus, any contact with bats, even if a bite is not noticed, should be reported to your physician. Bats have very small teeth and their bites can be very tiny but still capable of transmitting the rabies virus. There have been just 40 human cases of rabies in the U.S. since 2003 and 12 of these cases were from exposures outside of the U.S. In the rest of the world, dogs are the most common carrier of rabies, particularly in Asia and Africa, so travelers need to be aware of this risk when they travel abroad.
How has the Threat of Rabies Changed in the U.S.?
Before 1960, most human cases of rabies in this country came from infected dog bites. Since that time, successful rabies vaccination campaigns for our pets and expanded leash laws have greatly reduced dog rabies. The U.S. is now free of the canine strain of rabies that is found in much of the rest of the world and now our exposures are occurring from wildlife especially bats. In 2016, there were 4.910 confirmed cases of rabies in animals in the U.S. Of these cases, 33.5% came from bats, 28% from raccoons, 21% from skunks, 6.4% from foxes, 5.2% from cats and 1.2% from dogs. There are also regional differences in occurrences and in 2016, more than half of all animal rabies cases came from just 5 states – Virginia, Pennsylvania, Texas, New York and Maryland. The different strains of the rabies virus are maintained in their respective wildlife populations or niches; however, the viruses spill over into domestic pets and humans from exposures and pets and people can are still susceptible to and can acquire rabies from any of these species or viral strains.
What If I Get Bitten?
Rabies in humans can be prevented by eliminating exposures from rabid animals or by providing people exposed to rabies with prompt postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP consists of local treatments of bite wounds in combination with the administration of human rabies immunoglobulin followed by several vaccine injections. Today’s PEP is much superior to past treatments and there is seldom any reaction to the injections; it has also been proven extremely safe and effective. Thus, there is no excuse in delaying treatment if it is recommended. Last year in the U.S., approximately 55,000 PEP treatments were administered to people with possible exposures. If you believe that you might have been exposed, don’t panic but also don’t ignore the bite. If you are bitten, wash the wound rigorously and thoroughly with lots of soap and water and then treat it with a disinfectant like iodine. Then call your physician immediately, explain the circumstances of your possible exposure and follow the physician’s advice. Also try to identify the animal that bit you – is it a local pet, a stray dog/cat or what type of wildlife was involved? If the bite was from a dog or cat, call the local animal control officers to collect it if possible.
What If My Pet is Bitten?
If your pet is bitten, consult your veterinarian immediately and report the bite to local animal control authorities. Even if your dog, cat or ferret has a current vaccination, he/she should be re-vaccinated immediately, kept under an owner’s control and observed for a period as specified by state law (usually 10 days). Pets that are bitten but have expired vaccinations, will need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis; you should work out the details with your local veterinarian. Pets that have never been vaccinated and are exposed to a rabid animal may need to be euthanized in accordance with regulations or placed in strict quarantine for several months. Remember that rabies vaccines will almost always prevent your pet from acquiring rabies when bitten by a rabid animal; therefore, it makes the most sense to keep them up to date on their rabies vaccinations. It is a good idea to keep your rabies vaccination certificate or proof of vaccination available to help you remember your pet’s vaccination history and as a source of information for veterinarians.
What If My Pet Bites Someone?
If your pet bites a person, urge the victim to see a physician immediately and to follow the physician’s recommendations. Then check with your veterinarian to make sure that your pet is up to date on its rabies vaccination. You should report the bite to the local health department and animal control authorities. Often your pet will need to be confined under your control to monitor for any signs of rabies. If your pet exhibits any unusual behavior, contact your veterinarian and the local health department. You must make certain that the pet is under control and able to be carefully observed. After the observation period, have your pet vaccinated for rabies if the pet’s vaccination is not current.
When Should a Pet Be Vaccinated and How Often?
Rabies vaccinations should only be administered by a licensed veterinarian and the dog, cat or ferret can usually receive its first vaccination at about 3 months of age. This initial vaccination should be followed up by another rabies vaccination a year later. After this sequence, your veterinarian will work with you and set up continual vaccinations at either 1-or 3-year intervals. There are different types of rabies vaccines that require different protocols to ensure full protection of your pet. Remember that all dogs, cats and ferrets must be vaccinated for rabies even if they spend most of their time indoors. Vaccinating your pet not only protects them from rabies but also reduces the risk for you and your family. Additionally, spaying or neutering pets will reduce the number of potential strays that would be susceptible and possibly exposed to rabies. Keeping your pet on a leash when outdoors also helps to prevent inadvertent exposure to rabies in wildlife.
Does the State of Georgia Have Laws Pertaining to Rabies?
Georgia has a legal requirement that all dogs, cats and ferrets be vaccinated for rabies and the vaccines can only be administered by a licensed veterinarian. The minimal age requirement is 3 months and pets must be continuously vaccinated over their entire lifetime. The primary responsibility for the control of rabies in Georgia rests with individual county Boards of Health. They also promulgate rules and regulations for the prevention and control of rabies including quarantine periods. County Boards of Health have websites that spell out the specifics of these programs for their respective counties.
What Can I Do to Help Control Rabies?
Remember that rabies is entirely preventable through vaccinations. You should make certain that your pet receives its rabies vaccination and remains up to date for its entire life. You can prevent possible exposure to rabies by not allowing you dog or cat to roam free and supervise them when they are outside. Spaying and neutering pets may decrease roaming tendencies and will prevent them from contributing to the birth of unwanted animals in our communities. It is helpful not to leave exposed garbage or pet food outside, as it may attract wild or stray animals. Try to observe wild animals only from a distance especially if their behavior is not normal. A rabid animal may appear tame, but you should not go near it. Children should be warned to NEVER handle unfamiliar animals even if they appear friendly. If you see a wild animal acting strangely, report it to local animal control authorities. If possible, work to bat-proof homes or other structures from nesting thus reducing their access to people or pets.
Are Dog and Cats at the Oconee Regional Humane Society (ORHS) Vaccinated?
All the dogs and cats under the care of the ORHS are vaccinated for rabies as well as for several other infections. They have been carefully examined, screened, spayed or neutered and thus are offered for adoption in good health and already vaccinated for rabies. This is another reason to consider adopting a pet from the ORHS.
World Rabies Day has been designated to remind us that rabies is the deadliest disease in the world, but it is also completely preventable. As pet owners, we all have a crucial role to play in preventing this lethal disease. Please celebrate this special day by vaccinating your pet!
By Dr. Lonnie King
Several years ago, a skinny, beat up, socially neglected and badly injured beagle was found wondering along a Georgia highway. He was picked up and transported to a local humane society where he began to be properly cared for and start a long road to recovery. He was about 3 years old and was missing part of his tail and half of one of his ears. They named him Murray. It was likely that his injuries and appearance would prevent him from adoption. Murray was quite timid and afraid of almost everything but eager for love and attention. In addition to his care at the humane society, Murray was also fostered by some kind folks who thought that he needed a second chance. He was socialized and received veterinary care and the loving care of his foster parents. As Murray continued his recovery to health, people noticed that he was special; he had renewed energy, a great nose and was highly food motivated. With these qualities, he was a wonderful candidate to be considered for further training to take advantage of his remarkable traits and, hopefully, to introduce him into an environment in which he could flourish and lead a transformed and meaningful life.
Murray was a perfect candidate to become a detection dog. He was introduced into the National Detector Dog Training Center (NDDTC) located in Newnan, Georgia. This facility is operated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The NDDTC provides highly specialized training for agricultural detector dog teams tasked with safeguarding American agriculture and natural resources from harmful pests and diseases that could enter this country from overseas. The training begins with 2 weeks of screening to evaluate the temperament, behavior, health and food drive of the dogs. Murray passed with flying colors and his life and future were about to drastically change for the better. After about 4 more months of special training, Murray became a member of the “Beagle Brigade”. Now with renewed spirit, energy and a special purpose, he is sniffing luggage and carry-on bags for illegal contraband associated with passengers as they arrived at our international airports from all over the world. The Beagle Brigade started in 1984 and use beagles and beagle-crosses to sniff out and identify fruits, vegetables, pests and animal products that could attack and destroy important agricultural crops, livestock, poultry and forests if allowed to enter our country.
Murray was assigned to Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport where he works today. These dogs are readily accepted by passengers because they are cute, small and not intimidating. You may have seen Murray or other members of the Beagle Brigade wearing their green jackets, tails wagging and with a sense of urgency, sniffing luggage and bags in hopes of finding illegal contraband and then receiving the praise and treats from their handlers that they seek as rewards. For Murray, it is a of game of hide and seek that he thrives on; however, for U.S agriculture, it is a serious and deadly game of protecting our agriculture and food supply.
The dogs work with trainers for 10-14 weeks and are also teamed with their permanent handlers as part of the next level of training. Additionally, the dogs are also evaluated to make certain that they can tolerate the noise and the busy and bustling environments of a large airport. If they pass the tests and rigors of training, they work with their handlers up to 8 hours a day with plenty of breaks and are given the best diet, health care and attention for the rest of their lives. Murray and his other Brigade members are especially suited for this life. Murray would not be a happy dog as a couch potato; his strong and inherent hunting instinct, food motivation, early development and desire to play and be rewarded make him a perfect match for this lifestyle.
We know that dogs have a remarkable sense of smell and members of the Beagle Brigade are specially trained to detect numerous agricultural products and pests. Initially, they are trained to detect apples, citrus, mangos, beef and pork. Over time, the dogs learn to detect more scents, and some can detect up to 50 different types of odors from various contraband. They are trained to differentiate the scents of illegal agricultural goods from hundreds of other normal and common scents. For example, they can detect an orange, beef or pork product and alert their handlers but not give alerts on candy that is orange-flavored, lotions or other safe items. The dogs have over a 90% accuracy rate as they diligently sniff thousands of bags daily found on carousels, carried by passengers or being held by authorities. Although the USDA is responsible for training, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) operates and has authorization for the inspections at the airports. The CBP also trains larger dogs to do similar inspections of cargo, mail and baggage at land border crossings and seaports.
Today, it is estimated that U.S. agriculture and related businesses are worth over a trillion dollars to our economy but are constantly under attack from invasive species and dangerous pathogens originating from overseas that could be transported into this country causing millions of dollars of damages and losses. For example, fruit flies can attack our citrus trees and animal disease pathogens can infect and kill our livestock and poultry. Emerald Ash Borer is a pest that was illegally brought into the U.S. and has devastated millions of ash trees in 30 states. More recently, a pathogen and pest from Asia, called citrus greening disease, got into the U.S. and has attacked our citrus industries in Florida and California. Because of this disease, the orange production in Florida has been reduced by 75% with an estimated loss of $2 billion to that industry.
Murray and the other Brigade dogs are now part of 179 detection teams found at all U.S. international airports. In 2016 alone, these canine teams alerted their handlers to 1.77 million potentially illegal entries and helped screen luggage from 23 million passengers. Their work resulted in the interception, quarantine and destruction of over 75,000 illegal agricultural items that were, fortunately, kept out of our country thus protecting our highly valuable and vulnerable agricultural and food supply.
Murray and his friends will work until they are about 9 years old and are then adopted by loving families. It is not uncommon for their handlers to adopt them because they have developed a special bond and mutual love. All the dogs that are being retired or the dogs that fail their evaluation at the NDDTS in Newnan, Georgia, are guaranteed to be adopted. As a matter of fact, there is even a waiting list today to adopt these dogs. Murray’s story has been repeated hundreds of times. The Beagle Brigade is made up of beagles and beagle-crosses that mostly originate from animal shelters and rescue organizations. These are dogs given a second chance and subsequently live playful, energetic lives with a very noble purpose and receive praise, rewards and exceptional care in exchange for work that they love to do and are especially well adapted. The dogs of the Beagle Brigade have become the rock stars at our airports and even have their own trading cards and coloring books for kids. Murray’s brown eyes literally sparkle today as he looks forward to each new day and adventure. We are indebted to our shelters, humane societies and rescue groups that help give our canines a second chance and, who knows, when another neglected stray like Murray, will also become a national hero.
We continue to celebrate National Dog Week ! Today is also “Remember me Thursday”
History of Remember Me Thursday
Remember Me Thursday is an international social media awareness day that brings attention to the millions of adoptable pets waiting in shelters and honors those who haven’t made it out.
How to Celebrate Remember Me Thursday
You can celebrate this holiday by using the hashtag #remembermethursday and share this post. We would like you to share stories of any animal you adopted and how they changed your life. If you’re considering having a new pet in your life, consider adoption and see how you can change an animal’s life today.
STORY OF JAFAR ! - ALREADY ADOPTED ️
We would like to shine some light on Jafar, affectionately known as “Jets”. He came to ORHS at six weeks old, the runt of the litter and at risk. With good food and lots of TLC from our volunteers, he quickly caught up with his litter mates. But when he was 9 weeks old he began to limp and over a weekend both of his back legs were paralyzed. After much testing we learned it was due to a Protozoa. He’s being treated with meds and physical therapy but at this point it’s doubtful he will regain use of his legs. It hasn’t slowed him down though (thus his nickname “Jets”). He plays all the time. He LOVES other dogs and he can’t give enough kisses. We have a wheelchair coming for him and he has already found a great forever home with lots of brothers and sisters to play with.
Jets will likely always be a special needs dog but NOTHING DAMPENS HIS SPIRITS OR SLOWS HIM DOWN. We LOVE our Jafar ! Thank You Park Place Animal Hospital for all you do !
It is Deaf Dog Awareness Week!
There are many benefits to owning a deaf dog. One of those is that loud noises aren’t a distraction to them! While deaf dogs can pick up on the vibrations, they simply don’t have the sound sensitivities that can cause extreme stress in hearing dogs.Viewed on 3milliondogs.com here are five facts about deaf dogs:
It’s summer in lake country which means it’s the perfect time of the year for family visits, boating, and rounds of golf. Of course, the summer holiday of July 4th is right around the corner, and with that will come the fireworks displays. Even though these celebrations are loved by humans, they can be distressing for our four-legged friends. The flashes of light, loud noises, and smells of fireworks can be incredibly stressful for many dogs. Below are some tips to keep your furry family members safe this Fourth of July!
We hope that these pointers will ensure that every member of your family has a safe and happy holiday. Happy Fourth of July from everyone here at Oconee Regional Humane Society!
Hello, my name is Lola. I am a 2-year-old Lab/Terrier mix that loves to be with people. I love being outside and going for walks on a leash. I am very affectionate, and love everybody I meet. I especially love children and their affection they give to me. When I meet you, don’t be surprised if I roll over and show you my belly and look for tickles. I also love to play with my toys. Flipping the up in the air and just having fun seeing if they will squeak.
I am 100% housebroken! I have never had any accidents at my foster home. I look forward to my walks where I take care of my business. As much as I love my walks, I would love it even more if I had a fenced in yard to run and play in. I would also like to have a brother or sister that I can play with, but if not, then I can entertain myself with my toys until my family can spend time playing with me.
I have just completed treatment for heartworms. It was a very long process, and I am so happy the people at ORHS loved me enough to send me to a wonderful place to get the treatment I needed. My vet tells me that I will be just fine and will live a long and happy life. All I ask is that whoever adopts me, please make sure I get my monthly preventative, so I do not have to go through this again.
I want to thank ORHS for believing in me and getting me the treatment, I needed. I also want to especially thank my foster family for loving me and showing me what it’s like to be a part of a family.
I am sweet, and very loving, and just want the chance to complete your family. Please bring me home.
When Huck’s foster parents asked him what qualities he’s looking for in his forever parents, Huck said they should be loving, devoted, active, smart, patient … and a tad stubborn. They said, “Wow Huck—that’s just like you!” At 47 pounds and a mix of a couple of breeds of hound, Huck knows what he wants for his forever family.
Huck came to stay with this foster mom and dad about two months ago, after being turned back in to ORHS by his original adopters. Specific details aren’t known but he came to ORHS very fearful, mostly of men but also with small children. He was friendlier with women but sometimes would spook if they approached him too quickly. It seems Huck may have been abused by a male in his former home, and perhaps tormented by small children. He sometimes would cower in fear of getting hit.
Huck bonded very quickly with his foster parents, never showing any aggression. They took him to Rockin’ Rescue Obedience which seemed to do him a world of good. When he first began training classes, Huck was fearful of all the people and curious of the other dogs. By the time he finished the classes he allowed other adults to walk him and ran and played with all the other eight or nine dogs. He even whined when they pulled into the parking lot because he was so happy to be going to class! The trainer suggested Huck would be great at agility training—his intelligence, speed and natural athleticism would make him a great candidate and would give him confidence.
Huck is now doing so much better with new people—if strangers allow Huck to approach them instead of them approaching him first, he is less fearful. Aside from the fear issues, which are subsiding rapidly, his foster parents say he is the most loving dog they have ever “owned” in their 50 years of marriage. They say he is very smart, figures things out quickly and loves to play chase. When he wants to play, he will get his favorite toy and drop it at their feet. He is extremely fast and loves to run. He is completely house broken and lets you know when he needs something.
The ideal home for Huck would be with folks who have a lot of love and patience, are active outdoors, and have a large fenced or very remote area. Huck would love to spend his 2nd birthday in August with his new family. Just look at that face—he’s waiting for you. Contact ORHS to give Huck the family he deserves.